Journey of Pakistan’s History: An Overview of Governments from 1947 Till Now

Journey of Pakistan’s History: An Overview of Governments from 1947 Till Now

History of Pakistan – II

i. On 20th December 1971 took the oath of the president of Pakistan and Chief Martial Law Administrator.

(a) Muhammad Khan Junejo (b) Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (c) Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (d) Benazir Bhutto

ii. Youm-e-Takbeer is celebrated on:

(a) 23rd March (b) 15th June (c) 1st May (d) 28th May

iii. In South Asia, through an act, the Viceroy Lord Rippon implemented the system of local governments in

(a) 1854 (b) 1864 (c) 1874 (d) 1884

iv. Zakat is deducted from the Muslim account holders at the percentage of

(a) 2½% (b) 3% (c) 3½% (d) 4%

v. 33% of the total seats of the district council is reserved for:

(a) women (b) farmers (c) minorities (d) social workers

vi. The total members of the National Assembly are:

(a) 322 (b) 342 (c) 382 (d) 442

vii. Pakistan did atomic blasts in

(a) 1993 (b) 1995 (c) 1998 (d) 2001

viii. In 1993 government of the Benazir Bhutto started the five-year plan.

(a) fifth (b) sixth (c) seventh (d) eighth

ix. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif himself inaugurated the motorway on its completion ceremony.

(a) 1998 (b) 1996 (c) 1994 (d) 1992


  1. Union Council Duties:
    • Local governance: Administering and managing local affairs within its jurisdiction.
    • Development planning: Formulating and implementing plans for local development and infrastructure.
  2. Washington Declaration Purpose:
    • To improve relations: It was made to enhance diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan after the Kargil conflict.
  3. Dismissal of Benazir Bhutto Government:
    • Alleged corruption: President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismissed Benazir Bhutto’s government in 1990 over allegations of corruption and mismanagement.
  4. Musharraf Government Measures for Women:
    • Women’s reserved seats: Introducing reserved seats for women in local government bodies.
    • Women’s empowerment initiatives: Implementing programs to enhance women’s economic and social empowerment.
  5. Law for Discontinuing Arms Supply to Pakistan:
    • Pressler Amendment: The arms supply to Pakistan was discontinued under the Pressler Amendment.
  6. Lahore Declaration Meaning:
    • Peace agreement: The Lahore Declaration refers to the peace agreement signed between India and Pakistan in 1999.
  7. 1973 Constitution as Federal Constitution:
    • Division of powers: It divides powers between the central government and the provinces, establishing a federal structure.
  8. Land Limit Set by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto:
    • Ceiling on land holdings: Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto set a limit of 150 acres of agricultural land for individual holdings.
  9. Privatization of Habib Bank and UBL:
    • Privatized in 2003: Both Habib Bank and UBL were privatized under the government’s economic reforms in 2003.
  10. Graduation Condition for Candidates:
  • 1977 Elections: Graduation became a condition for candidates in the 1977 elections.


Q.i. Narrate the formation of a District Government and its duties.

The formation of a District Government in Pakistan involves the establishment of a local administrative structure responsible for governance at the district level. This structure comprises several tiers, each with distinct roles and responsibilities, aimed at ensuring efficient governance and local development.

Formation of District Government in Pakistan:

1. District Council: At the heart of the district government is the District Council. It serves as the primary governing body, responsible for overseeing and coordinating various administrative functions within the district. The District Council comprises elected representatives from various constituencies within the district.

2. Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA): Under the District Council, the Tehsil Municipal Administration operates at the tehsil level. It focuses on the administration of smaller administrative units within the district, known as tehsils. TMAs are responsible for implementing policies and plans formulated by the District Council.

3. Union Councils: Further down the administrative hierarchy are Union Councils, which operate at the grassroots level. These councils represent the smallest administrative units within a district and are responsible for addressing local issues, development projects, and community welfare.

Duties of District Government:

  1. Development Planning: The District Government formulates development plans and strategies for the overall progress of the district, focusing on infrastructure, education, healthcare, and socio-economic development.
  2. Resource Management: It manages and allocates resources such as funds, land, and other assets for various developmental projects and initiatives within the district.
  3. Law and Order: Ensuring law and order within the district falls under the jurisdiction of the District Government, working in collaboration with law enforcement agencies to maintain peace and security.
  4. Social Welfare Initiatives: Implementing and overseeing social welfare programs aimed at uplifting marginalized communities, providing basic amenities, and promoting social equality.
  5. Infrastructure Development: The District Government oversees the construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, public buildings, and other essential infrastructure projects vital for the district’s progress.
  6. Local Governance: Facilitating and managing local governance structures, including Union Councils and Tehsil Municipal Administrations, to ensure effective and responsive governance at the grassroots level.

By effectively carrying out these duties, the District Government plays a crucial role in fostering development, ensuring governance, and improving the overall quality of life for the residents within its jurisdiction.

Q.ii Explain the efforts made for Islamization between 1977 and 1988.

Efforts for Islamization in Pakistan (1977-1988):

The period between 1977 and 1988 in Pakistan was characterized by a significant push towards Islamization, primarily during the military rule of General Zia-ul-Haq. This era witnessed extensive efforts to incorporate Islamic principles into various facets of Pakistani society and governance.

1. Introduction of Islamic Laws: General Zia-ul-Haq implemented several Islamic laws, including the Hudood Ordinance, which dealt with offenses such as theft, adultery, and alcohol consumption. These laws were based on Islamic Shariah principles and aimed to align the legal system with Islamic teachings.

2. Shariah Courts: Special Shariah courts were established to adjudicate matters according to Islamic jurisprudence. These courts operated parallel to the existing legal system and were responsible for handling cases related to Islamic law.

3. Educational Reforms: Efforts were made to Islamize the education system by revising curricula to include more Islamic teachings and values. Textbooks were modified to emphasize Islamic history, ideology, and values, impacting both public and private educational institutions.

4. Islamic Banking and Finance: The concept of Islamic banking was introduced, promoting financial systems compliant with Islamic principles such as interest-free banking and adherence to Shariah guidelines in financial transactions.

5. Promotion of Islamic Culture: There was an emphasis on promoting Islamic culture and traditions in society, including the encouragement of Islamic attire, cultural events, and celebrations to reinforce Islamic identity.

6. Legal Changes and Reforms: Amendments were made to the legal framework to bring it in line with Islamic principles, affecting family law, inheritance, and other aspects of personal and social life.

7. Political and Social Policies: Policies were implemented to integrate Islamic principles into political and social structures, advocating for a more Islamic-oriented governance system.

iii. Explain the Nuclear Programme of Pakistan.

Pakistan’s Nuclear Programme:

Pakistan’s nuclear program is a critical aspect of its national security and strategic policy. It began in the 1970s and evolved significantly, leading to the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear capabilities.

1. Peaceful Beginnings: Initially, Pakistan’s nuclear ambitions were directed towards peaceful purposes, such as generating nuclear energy for civilian use. Cooperation agreements with various countries, including the United States, were aimed at acquiring technology for nuclear power plants.

2. Shift towards Military Applications: However, geopolitical tensions, especially with India, particularly after the 1974 nuclear test by India, led to a shift in Pakistan’s nuclear program. Concerns over regional security and perceived threats prompted Pakistan to focus more on developing nuclear weapons capabilities.

3. Secretive Development: Despite international pressure and sanctions, Pakistan continued its nuclear development covertly. Scientists, led by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, played a crucial role in acquiring nuclear technology, materials, and expertise from various sources.

4. Deterrence and Security Strategy: Pakistan’s nuclear program is seen as a deterrent against perceived threats from neighboring countries, particularly India. Nuclear capability is viewed as a cornerstone of Pakistan’s national security strategy, providing a credible defense against potential aggression.

5. International Response and Non-Proliferation Concerns: Pakistan’s nuclear ambitions raised concerns globally regarding nuclear proliferation. The country faced international sanctions and diplomatic pressures due to its nuclear activities, impacting its relations with various nations.

6. Confirmation of Nuclear Capability: In May 1998, Pakistan conducted a series of nuclear tests in response to similar tests by India, publicly confirming its nuclear capability. These tests solidified Pakistan’s position as a nuclear power in the region.

7. Nuclear Doctrine and Policies: Pakistan maintains a policy of “credible minimum deterrence,” emphasizing the use of nuclear weapons as a defensive measure and ensuring a sufficient but limited nuclear arsenal for deterrence purposes.

iv. Comprehensive Notes on Tehsil Council, Tehsil Administration, Tehsil Nazim, and Naib Nazim:

a. Tehsil Council: The Tehsil Council is a pivotal part of Pakistan’s local government system, operating at the tehsil level, which is an administrative tier below the district level. It comprises elected representatives from the tehsil’s various constituencies. The primary responsibilities of the Tehsil Council include:

  • Development Planning: Formulating development plans and strategies for the tehsil’s progress in areas such as infrastructure, education, healthcare, and socio-economic development.
  • Resource Allocation: Managing and allocating resources like funds, land, and assets for local development projects and initiatives within the tehsil.
  • Local Governance Oversight: Overseeing and coordinating activities within the tehsil, including those undertaken by Union Councils and other local government bodies.

b. Tehsil Administration: The Tehsil Administration refers to the administrative structure responsible for governance and implementation of policies at the tehsil level. It consists of government officials and staff tasked with executing various functions, including:

  • Policy Implementation: Carrying out policies and plans formulated by the higher-tiered administrative bodies, such as the District Council or higher provincial authorities.
  • Service Delivery: Ensuring the efficient delivery of public services, including healthcare, education, infrastructure, and social welfare programs, within the tehsil.
  • Law and Order: Collaborating with law enforcement agencies to maintain peace, security, and law enforcement within the tehsil’s jurisdiction.

c. Tehsil Nazim and Naib Nazim: The Tehsil Nazim and Naib Nazim are elected officials who play crucial roles in the Tehsil Council’s governance structure:

  • Tehsil Nazim: The Tehsil Nazim serves as the head of the Tehsil Council. Responsibilities include presiding over council meetings, formulating policies and strategies for tehsil development, and representing the tehsil’s interests at higher administrative levels.
  • Naib Nazim: The Naib Nazim, or Deputy Nazim, assists the Tehsil Nazim in administrative duties and decision-making processes. They may also deputize for the Tehsil Nazim in their absence.

v. Narrate the important events of the Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif Government

Important Events of the Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif Government:

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif’s tenure as Prime Minister of Pakistan saw several significant events that shaped the country’s political, economic, and social landscape:

1. Economic Reforms and Privatization: Sharif’s government implemented economic reforms aimed at liberalizing the economy. This included privatization of state-owned enterprises, deregulation of industries, and attracting foreign investment to stimulate economic growth.

2. Infrastructure Development: The government initiated major infrastructure projects, notably the construction of motorways, which aimed to improve connectivity and facilitate trade and transportation across the country.

3. Kargil Conflict: One of the most notable and controversial events during Sharif’s tenure was the Kargil conflict in 1999. The dispute between India and Pakistan over the Kargil region in Kashmir escalated into armed conflict, resulting in significant casualties on both sides. The conflict strained diplomatic relations and led to international pressure on Pakistan.

4. Constitutional Amendments: Sharif’s government introduced amendments to the Constitution, including the controversial 15th Amendment, which sought to grant the Prime Minister greater powers and limit judicial oversight.

5. Tensions with Military and Ousting from Office: Tensions between Sharif’s government and the military escalated, leading to a coup in 1999. Sharif was ousted from power by General Pervez Musharraf, marking the end of his second term as Prime Minister.

6. Legal and Political Challenges: The Sharif government faced legal and political challenges, including confrontations with the judiciary and allegations of corruption, which further strained the administration’s credibility.

vi. State the important events of the Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto Government.

Benazir Bhutto’s tenure as Prime Minister of Pakistan, across two non-consecutive terms, was marked by significant events that shaped the nation’s political, social, and economic landscape:

First Term (1988-1990):

1. Election as First Female Prime Minister: Benazir Bhutto made history by becoming Pakistan’s first female Prime Minister after winning the 1988 general elections, marking a breakthrough for gender equality in Pakistani politics.

2. Economic Challenges and Reforms: Bhutto’s government faced economic challenges, including a high fiscal deficit and inflation. Efforts were made to implement economic reforms, attract foreign investment, and address poverty through social welfare programs.

3. Constitutional Amendments and Tensions: Bhutto’s government introduced constitutional amendments to enhance provincial autonomy and protect fundamental rights. However, tensions arose with the President, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, leading to the dismissal of her government in 1990.

Second Term (1993-1996):

1. Re-election as Prime Minister: Bhutto was re-elected as Prime Minister in 1993, marking her second term in office.

2. Economic Policies and Privatization Efforts: Her government continued economic reforms, focusing on privatization, deregulation, and attracting foreign investment to stimulate economic growth. Efforts were made to address corruption and improve governance.

3. Social and Women Empowerment Initiatives: Bhutto emphasized social welfare and women’s empowerment, introducing programs to enhance education and healthcare, particularly for women and children. She aimed to uplift marginalized communities and improve human development indices.

4. Ouster and Exile: Bhutto’s government faced allegations of corruption and mismanagement, leading to increased political turmoil. In 1996, President Farooq Leghari dismissed her government on charges of corruption and abuse of power. Bhutto went into self-imposed exile.

Impact and Legacy:

Benazir Bhutto’s tenure as Prime Minister left a significant impact on Pakistan’s political landscape. Her leadership as the first female Prime Minister and advocacy for democratic governance and women’s rights contributed to Pakistan’s political evolution. However, challenges including corruption allegations and governance issues marred her legacy, reflecting the complexities of Pakistani politics.

vii. Describe the important aspects of the 1973 Constitution.

The 1973 Constitution of Pakistan stands as a pivotal document that outlines the framework for governance, rights, and institutions in the country. It embodies key principles, features, and provisions crucial to Pakistan’s constitutional and legal framework:

Key Aspects of the 1973 Constitution:

1. Islamic Republic:

  • The Constitution declares Pakistan as an Islamic Republic, affirming Islam as the state religion and guiding principle for legislation and governance. It guarantees religious freedom for minorities while upholding Islam’s special status.

2. Federal Structure and Division of Powers:

  • The Constitution establishes a federal structure, delineating powers between the central (federal) government and provincial governments. It outlines exclusive, concurrent, and residual powers to maintain a balance between federal and provincial autonomy.

3. Fundamental Rights:

  • Fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution ensure individual liberties, including the right to equality, freedom of speech, religion, and the right to due process. It guarantees protection against discrimination, arbitrary arrest, and slavery.

4. Islamic Provisions and Shariah Court:

  • The Constitution incorporates Islamic provisions, including the Objectives Resolution and the creation of a Council of Islamic Ideology to ensure legislation complies with Islamic principles. Shariah courts were established to handle matters consistent with Islamic law.

5. Parliamentary Democracy:

  • The Constitution upholds a parliamentary form of government, with a President as the head of state and a Prime Minister as the head of government. The Parliament consists of two houses: the National Assembly and the Senate.

6. Provincial Autonomy and Local Government:

  • It grants autonomy to provinces, allowing them to have their own governments, legislative assemblies, and administrations. It also recognizes local governments and delineates their functions and powers.

7. Amendments and Supremacy of Constitution:

  • The Constitution outlines procedures for amendments to ensure the document’s adaptability to changing circumstances while maintaining its core principles. It establishes the Constitution as the supreme law of the land, ensuring adherence to its provisions by all state institutions.

8. Independent Judiciary and Judicial Review:

  • The Constitution guarantees an independent judiciary, with the Supreme Court as the apex judicial body. It provides for judicial review, enabling the courts to assess the constitutionality of laws and actions of governmental bodies.

Impact and Significance:

The 1973 Constitution of Pakistan serves as a cornerstone for the country’s governance and legal system. It reflects a balance between Islamic principles, democratic values, federalism, and fundamental rights, providing a framework for governance that has endured for decades.

viii. Explain the following:
a. Jihad-e-Afghanistan
b. The nationalization of industries in Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto period

a. Jihad-e-Afghanistan:

Background: Jihad-e-Afghanistan refers to the period during the 1980s when Pakistan, with support from the United States and some Arab countries, actively supported Afghan mujahideen fighters against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

Key Aspects:

  1. Soviet Invasion and Pakistan’s Involvement:
    • In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to support the communist government. Pakistan, considering the Soviet presence a threat, began supporting Afghan resistance groups, providing them with sanctuary, training, and weapons.
  2. U.S. Support and Funding:
    • The United States, along with Saudi Arabia and other countries, supported Pakistan in aiding the mujahideen. The CIA provided financial and military assistance to bolster the Afghan resistance against the Soviets.
  3. Role of Afghan Mujahideen:
    • The Afghan mujahideen, consisting of various groups with different ideologies, fought against the Soviet forces. They received support and training in guerrilla warfare tactics from Pakistan’s intelligence agencies.
  4. Impact on Pakistan:
    • Pakistan’s involvement in Jihad-e-Afghanistan had far-reaching consequences. The influx of refugees and the spread of radical ideologies among Afghan fighters had social, economic, and political repercussions for Pakistan, contributing to the rise of religious extremism.
  5. End of Soviet Occupation:
    • The Soviet Union withdrew its forces from Afghanistan in 1989. The Afghan mujahideen’s efforts, supported by Pakistan and other nations, contributed significantly to the eventual withdrawal of Soviet troops.
  6. Aftermath and Rise of Taliban:
    • The power vacuum following the Soviet withdrawal led to internal conflicts in Afghanistan. This ultimately facilitated the rise of the Taliban, an Islamist group that later came to power in the mid-1990s.

b. The Nationalization of Industries in Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s Period:

Context: During Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s tenure as Prime Minister from 1971 to 1977, one of the significant policy measures was the nationalization of several key industries and sectors in Pakistan.

Key Aspects:

  1. Nationalization Policies:
    • Bhutto’s government pursued socialist policies aimed at reducing economic disparities and promoting social justice. As part of this agenda, several major industries, including banking, steel, and chemical industries, were nationalized.
  2. Aim and Justification:
    • The rationale behind nationalization was to reduce the concentration of wealth among a few elite families, promote state control over key sectors, and redistribute wealth more equitably among the populace.
  3. Impacts on Economy and Industry:
    • The nationalization of industries led to a significant shift in ownership from private entities to state control. However, this move faced criticism due to concerns about inefficiencies, bureaucratic control, and a decline in the productivity and competitiveness of these sectors.
  4. Political and Social Ramifications:
    • While Bhutto’s nationalization policies were aimed at social welfare and reducing inequality, they generated controversy and political opposition. The move was criticized for stifling private enterprise and leading to economic challenges.
  5. Reversal of Policies:
    • Subsequent governments, following Bhutto’s removal from power in 1977, began the process of denationalization and privatization, gradually returning some industries to private ownership.


comments user
Riffat Qadir

Zebredast bravo

comments user

All the answers are very precise and crystal clear.