Interesting Notes: Last 2 Chapters 10th Class Biology

Interesting Notes: Last 2 Chapters 10th Class Biology



  1. Define biotechnology and describe its importance. Answer: Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. It involves using living organisms or their systems to develop or make products, often involving genetic manipulation. The importance of biotechnology spans multiple fields, including:
    • Medicine: Production of pharmaceuticals, gene therapy, and diagnostics.
    • Agriculture: Development of genetically modified crops with improved yield, resistance to pests and diseases, and enhanced nutritional content.
    • Environment: Bioremediation techniques for cleaning up pollutants, waste management, and sustainable bioenergy production.
  2. What is a fermenter? What are the two types of fermentation carried out in fermenters? Answer: A fermenter is a bioreactor vessel used for growing microorganisms under controlled conditions to produce desired products through fermentation. The two types of fermentation carried out in fermenters are:
    • Aerobic fermentation: Requires oxygen. Examples include the production of antibiotics, vitamins, and enzymes.
    • Anaerobic fermentation: Occurs in the absence of oxygen. Examples include ethanol production, lactic acid fermentation, and biogas production.
  3. Describe the achievements of genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture, and the environment.
    • Medicine:
      • Production of insulin, human growth hormones, and monoclonal antibodies.
      • Gene therapy for treating genetic disorders.
      • Development of vaccines, such as the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.
    • Agriculture:
      • Creation of genetically modified crops like Bt cotton and Golden Rice, which provide pest resistance and improved nutrition.
      • Enhanced resistance to diseases and environmental stresses.
      • Improved crop yield and shelf life.
    • Environment:
      • Bioremediation: Use of genetically engineered microbes to clean up oil spills, heavy metals, and other pollutants.
      • Bioenergy: Production of biofuels from genetically engineered organisms.
      • Development of biodegradable plastics.
  4. What basic steps does a genetic engineer adopt during the manipulation of genes?
    • Isolation of the gene of interest: Identifying and extracting the specific gene to be manipulated.
    • Gene cloning: Amplifying the gene using techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
    • Insertion into a vector: Integrating the gene into a plasmid or viral vector.
    • Transformation: Introducing the vector into a host organism (bacteria, plants, or animals).
    • Selection and screening: Identifying successfully modified organisms using markers.
    • Expression and analysis: Ensuring the gene is expressed correctly and analyzing the resultant protein or phenotype.
  5. What are single-cell proteins? Describe their importance. Answer: Single-cell proteins (SCPs) refer to edible unicellular microorganisms such as algae, fungi, bacteria, and yeast that are rich in protein content. Their importance includes:
    • Nutritional supplement: High protein content makes them a valuable source of nutrition, particularly in areas with food scarcity.
    • Sustainable production: SCPs can be grown on various substrates, including waste materials, making them a sustainable and environmentally friendly protein source.
    • Animal feed: Used as a high-protein feed supplement in livestock and aquaculture.


  1. How would you define fermentation in biotechnology? Answer: Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts carbohydrates, such as sugars, into acids, gases, or alcohol using microorganisms (yeasts, bacteria, or fungi) under anaerobic conditions. In biotechnology, fermentation is exploited to produce a variety of industrially important products.
  2. Name any two industrial products made by fermentation. Also, describe their uses in the industry.
    • Ethanol: Produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeast. Used as a biofuel, in alcoholic beverages, and as a solvent in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.
    • Lactic Acid: Produced by the fermentation of lactose by bacteria such as Lactobacillus. Used in the food industry as a preservative and flavoring agent, and in the production of biodegradable plastics (PLA).
  3. What are the products of the two types of carbohydrate fermentation?
    • Alcoholic fermentation: Produces ethanol and carbon dioxide. Example: Beer and wine production.
    • Lactic acid fermentation: Produces lactic acid. Example: Yogurt and sauerkraut production.
  4. Give an example of how biotechnology is helping for a better environment. Bioremediation is an example where biotechnology helps the environment. Genetically engineered bacteria are used to clean up oil spills, degrade toxic chemicals, and remove heavy metals from contaminated sites.
  5. In biotechnology, what is meant by Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)? How is it made? Answer: A Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. GMOs are made by:
    • Gene insertion: Introducing a new gene or genes into the organism’s genome using vectors like plasmids or viruses. Gene deletion: Removing or “knocking out” specific genes to alter an organism’s traits. Gene modification: Editing existing genes using techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 to improve or change their function.
    This process involves identifying the desired gene, using molecular tools to insert, delete, or edit the gene in the organism’s DNA, and then selecting and propagating the modified organisms for desired traits.


Pharmacology: Understanding Medicinal and Addictive Drugs


Pharmacology is the study of drug composition, properties, and medical applications. It encompasses the sources of drugs, their biochemical effects, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic uses. Clinical pharmacology has roots in the Middle Ages, focusing initially on natural substances. Modern pharmacology evolved in the 19th century, expanding to synthetic drugs and complex biomedical science.

Understanding the Concept

  1. Sources of Drugs:
    • Synthetic Drugs: Synthesized in laboratories, e.g., aspirin.
    • Plants and Fungi: Many antibiotics (penicillin), cardiotonic (digitalis), and analgesics.
    • Animals: Glandular products like fish liver oils, hormones, and antitoxins.
    • Minerals: Iodine in tincture of iodine, silver nitrate for wounds.
    • Bacteria: Antibiotics like streptomycin.
  2. Sedatives, Narcotics, and Hallucinogens:
    • Sedatives: Depress central nervous system activity, causing dizziness and lethargy. Examples include diazepam.
    • Narcotics: Strong painkillers from opium, e.g., morphine and codeine, which can be highly addictive.
    • Hallucinogens: Cause changes in perception and consciousness. Examples include mescaline and psilocin.
  3. Main Groups of Antibiotics:
    • Cephalosporins: Bactericidal, treat pneumonia and throat infections.
    • Tetracyclines: Broad-spectrum bacteriostatic, used for respiratory and urinary infections.
    • Sulpha Drugs (Sulfonamides): Synthetic, broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics, used for pneumonia and urinary infections.
  4. Antibiotic Resistance:
    • Resistance occurs when bacteria develop mechanisms to withstand antibiotics.
    • Overuse and misuse of antibiotics contribute to resistance.
    • Resistance poses a serious threat, making infections harder to treat.
  5. Mode of Action of Vaccines:
    • Vaccines contain weakened or killed pathogens.
    • Stimulate immune response to produce antibodies and memory cells.
    • Protect against future infections by the same pathogen.

Short Questions and Answers

  1. Define pharmacology and distinguish it from pharmacy:
    • Pharmacology: Study of drug properties, actions, and medical applications.
    • Pharmacy: Profession focused on preparing, dispensing, and proper use of medications.
  2. Differentiate between medicinal drugs and addictive drugs:
    • Medicinal Drug: Used for diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.
    • Addictive Drug: Causes dependence and addiction, leading to potential abuse.
  3. Differentiate between analgesic and antibiotic:
    • Analgesic: Relieves pain (e.g., aspirin, paracetamol).
    • Antibiotic: Kills or inhibits bacterial growth (e.g., penicillin, tetracycline).
  4. What is marijuana? To which category of addictive drugs does it belong?:
    • Marijuana: A hallucinogen obtained from Cannabis plants, causing altered perception and consciousness.
  5. Differentiate between narcotics and hallucinogens:
    • Narcotics: Strong painkillers derived from opium (e.g., morphine), often addictive.
    • Hallucinogens: Drugs causing changes in perception and thought (e.g., LSD, psilocybin).


Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their medical applications. It involves understanding sources like synthetic compounds, plants, animals, minerals, and bacteria. While medicinal drugs offer therapeutic benefits, addictive drugs pose risks of dependence and abuse. Antibiotics and vaccines play crucial roles in treating infections and preventing diseases. Awareness of drug resistance and the proper use of medications is vital for effective healthcare.

References and notes

  1.  “Biotechnology”IUPAC Goldbook. 2014. doi:10.1351/goldbook.B00666Archived from the original on January 20, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  2. Ereky, Karl. (June 8, 1919). Biotechnologie der Fleisch-, Fett-, und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe: für naturwissenschaftlich gebildete Landwirte verfasst. P. Parey. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2022 – via Hathi Trust.
  3.  “Genetic Engineering”. National Human Genome Research Institute, US National Institutes of Health. December 15, 2023. Retrieved December 18, 2023.
  4. References[edit]
  5.  Vallance P, Smart TG (January 2006). “The future of pharmacology”British Journal of Pharmacology. 147 Suppl 1 (S1): S304–7. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706454PMC 1760753PMID 16402118.
  6.  “Definition of PHARMACOLOGY”Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
  7.  “Pharmacy (n.)”Online Etymology DictionaryArchived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  8.  “Pharmacology”Online Etymology DictionaryArchived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.

External links

At Wikiversity, you can learn more and teach others about Biotechnology at the Department of Biotechnology