“Biodiversity: Advance Impact Human Being in Taxonomy, and Global Research”

“Biodiversity: Advance Impact Human Being in Taxonomy, and Global Research”

3 Biodiversity

“Biodiversity, derived from ‘bio’ (life) and ‘diversity’ (variety), encapsulates the rich tapestry of life on Earth. It encompasses organisms, from microscopic bacteria to towering trees, thriving across diverse ecosystems. The term refers to variation within and among species in various habitats.

The Earth hosts an estimated 10 million or more distinct species, but only a few of these have been studied and documented by scientists. Despite the staggering diversity, there exists a fundamental unity among living beings, evident in the shared biological characteristics across various groups of organisms.

Factors such as climate, altitude, soil composition, and the interactions between different species intricately shape the diversity of flora and fauna in a given region. Biodiversity is not uniformly distributed across the planet; it flourishes abundantly in tropical regions, is vibrant in temperate zones, and diminishes in the polar extremes.

This richness of life today is the culmination of an evolutionary journey spanning an impressive 4 billion years. While the precise origins of life remain in mystery, scientific evidence suggests a history dominated by bacterial and unicellular life forms until around 600 million years ago.

Understanding biodiversity and its distribution holds profound implications for our understanding of ecosystems, conservation efforts, and the interconnectedness of life on our planet. Unraveling the complexities of biodiversity not only unveils the beauty of nature’s tapestry but also underscores the importance of preserving and sustaining the diversity of life forms for future generations.”


Q1. Relate the importance of biodiversity with natural ecosystems through examples:

Biodiversity plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and functionality of natural ecosystems. Examples include:

  • Ecosystem Stability: Diverse ecosystems are more resilient to environmental changes. Different species have unique roles; for instance, predators control prey populations, ensuring a balance that prevents overgrazing.
  • Pollination: Biodiversity is essential for pollination services provided by insects, birds, and other organisms. This process is vital for the reproduction of many plant species, which, in turn, sustains the entire ecosystem.
  • Medicinal Resources: Many pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, animals, and microorganisms. Biodiversity is a rich source of potential medicines, and The phrase the loss of species may mean losing potential cures.
  • Nutrient Cycling: Different organisms contribute to nutrient cycling in ecosystems. For example, decomposers break down organic matter, releasing nutrients into the soil, and fostering plant growth.

Q2. Explain the aims and principles of classification, keeping in view its historical background:

Aims of Classification:

  • Identification: To identify and name organisms systematically.
  • Organization: To organize diverse life forms into logical and comprehensive categories.
  • Understanding Diversity: To comprehend the evolutionary relationships among organisms.


  • Morphological Characteristics: Historically, early classifications were based on visible morphological features.
  • Evolutionary Relationships: Modern taxonomy considers evolutionary relationships, utilizing molecular and genetic data.
  • Hierarchical Structure: Classification involves a hierarchical system, with broader categories subdivided into more specific ones.

Q3. Explain the base for establishing five kingdoms of living organisms:

The five-kingdom classification system, proposed by Robert Whittaker, is based on cellular structure, mode of nutrition, and reproduction. The kingdoms are:

  • Monera: Unicellular organisms with prokaryotic cells.
  • Protista: Mostly unicellular eukaryotes with diverse nutritional modes.
  • Fungi: Multicellular organisms with a cell wall, obtain nutrients through absorption.
  • Plantae: Multicellular organisms with cellulose cell walls, capable of photosynthesis.
  • Animalia: Multicellular organisms without cell walls, obtain nutrients through ingestion.

This classification system provides a more comprehensive representation of the diversity of living organisms.

Q4. Justify why viruses are excluded from the Five-Kingdom classification system:

Viruses lack cellular structures and the ability to carry out metabolic processes independently. They can only replicate within host cells. Since the five-kingdom classification system is based on cellular organization and function, viruses do not fit into this framework. Instead, viruses are typically studied, separate from the classification of living organisms.

Q5. Describe the aims and principles of binomial nomenclature:


  • Uniform Naming: To provide a universal and standardized way of naming species.
  • Clarity and Precision: Confusion by having a unique name for each species.


  • Binomial System: Each species is given a two-part name – the genus (first part) and the specific epithet (second part).
  • Latinized Names: Names are Latinized to ensure consistency across languages.
  • Hierarchy: The system reflects the hierarchical nature of classification, from broad categories to specific species.

Q6. Explain the impact of human beings on biodiversity:

  • Habitat Destruction: Urbanization, agriculture, and infrastructure development lead to the destruction of natural habitats.
  • Pollution: Industrial and agricultural activities introduce pollutants that harm ecosystems and species.
  • Overexploitation: Unsustainable harvesting of resources, overfishing, and poaching threaten many species.
  • Climate Change: Human-induced climate change affects the distribution and behavior of various species.

Q7. Identify causes of deforestation and its effects on biodiversity:


  • Logging: Clearing forests for timber.
  • Agriculture: Expansion of agricultural lands.
  • Urbanization: Construction of cities and infrastructure.


  • Loss of Habitat: Displacement and extinction of species.
  • Climate Impact: Reduced carbon sequestration, contributing to climate change.
  • Disruption of Ecosystems: Altered nutrient cycles and ecological imbalances.

Q8. Describe some of the programs running in Pakistan for the conservation of biodiversity:

Examples of Conservation Programs in Pakistan:

  • National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP): A comprehensive strategy addressing biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
  • Indus for All Programme: Focuses on conservation and sustainable management of the Indus River ecosystem.
  • Community-Based Conservation Initiatives: Involving local communities in biodiversity conservation efforts.

These programs aim to balance the needs of human populations with the preservation of Pakistan’s rich biodiversity.


Q1. Difference between the modes of nutrition of fungi and animals:


  • Nutrition: Fungi are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients through absorption.
  • Feeding Process: They secrete enzymes onto their food source, breaking it down externally, and then absorbing the resulting nutrients.


  • Nutrition: Animals are also heterotrophs but typically ingest food.
  • Feeding Process: They consume food, break it down internally through digestion, and absorb nutrients in the digestive tract.

Q2. Difficulty in using interbreeding to define species of unicellular organisms:

Interbreeding as a criterion for defining species relies on the ability of individuals to reproduce and produce fertile offspring. Unicellular organisms, such as bacteria and many protists, often reproduce asexually through processes like binary fission or budding. There might be genetic exchange or recombination, but it doesn’t necessarily fit the traditional definition of interbreeding. Thus, defining species based on interbreeding becomes complex and challenging among unicellular organisms that primarily reproduce asexually.

Q3. Relationship between taxonomy and systematics:

Taxonomy is the science of naming, describing, and classifying organisms into hierarchical categories based on shared characteristics. It primarily deals with classification and nomenclature.

Systematics is a broader field encompassing taxonomy. It includes the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms, focusing on their diversification and phylogeny. Systematics utilizes taxonomic principles but delves into understanding the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Q4. Differentiation between “extinct” and “endangered”:

Extinct: Refers to a species that no longer exists anywhere on Earth. It has completely died out, with no surviving individuals.

Endangered: Describes a species at risk of becoming extinct. These species have very low population numbers and face threats to their survival. They are on the brink of extinction if measures aren’t taken to protect and increase their populations.

Q5. Contributions of Whittaker, Margulis, and Schwartz in taxonomy:

Robert Whittaker: Proposed the five-kingdom classification system, broadening the scope of classification to include Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. This system better represented the diversity of life on Earth beyond the traditional plant and animal kingdoms.

Lynn Margulis: Known for her endosymbiotic theory, suggesting that certain organelles within eukaryotic cells, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, originated from symbiotic relationships between ancient prokaryotic cells. This theory revolutionized the evolution of complex cells.

Jeffrey Schwartz: Contributed to taxonomy by advocating for a more dynamic and integrative approach. He emphasized the importance of combining traditional morphological taxonomy with molecular and genetic data to understand evolutionary relationships among organisms. His work highlighted the need for a comprehensive approach to classification.


Q1. Match the binomials of some common local organisms from a two-column list of Generic and specific names.

Here are some common local organisms matched with their binomial names:

Generic NameSpecific NameBinomial Name
CanislupusCanis lupus
FeliscatusFelis catus
HomosapiensHomo sapiens
PantheraleoPanthera leo
MusmusculusMus musculus
BostaurusBos taurus
VulpesvulpesVulpes vulpes
RattusnorvegicusRattus norvegicus
EquuscaballusEquus caballus
GorillagorillaGorilla gorilla

These binomial genus names formed unique scientific names for each species.

Q2. Describe ways in which society benefits from biodiversity.

Society reaps numerous benefits from biodiversity across various aspects:

1. Economic Benefits:

  • Medicinal Resources: Biodiversity provides a vast array of medicinal compounds, contributing to pharmaceuticals and healthcare.
  • Agricultural Support: Diverse plant and animal species aid in crop pollination, pest control, and genetic diversity for improved agricultural productivity.
  • Biological Resources: Biodiversity offers resources for construction, textiles, and various industries, supporting economic growth.

2. Ecosystem Services:

  • Pollination: Biodiversity, especially diverse insect species, facilitates pollination critical for food crops and wild plants.
  • Clean Air and Water: Healthy ecosystems regulate air quality, absorb pollutants, and maintain water purification processes.
  • Climate Regulation: Biodiversity helps regulate the climate by sequestering carbon, and mitigating climate change impacts.

3. Cultural and Recreational Value:

  • Aesthetic and Spiritual Value: Diverse ecosystems, landscapes, and species contribute to cultural identity and spiritual beliefs.
  • Recreation and Tourism: Biodiversity-rich areas attract tourists, supporting local economies through ecotourism and recreational activities.

4. Scientific and Educational Importance:

  • Research and Innovation: Biodiversity gave a vast source of scientific study, unlocking discoveries in biology, genetics, and ecology.
  • Education and Awareness: Biodiversity inspires curiosity, fostering environmental education and awareness among societies.

5. Food Security and Resilience:

  • Genetic Diversity: Biodiversity in crops and livestock offers genetic resilience against diseases and environmental changes, ensuring food security.

6. Human Health and Well-being:

  • Natural Remedies: Biodiversity contributes to traditional medicines and will be helpful in future health care.
  • Psychological Benefits: Access to green spaces and natural environments enhances mental health and well-being.

Biodiversity is fundamentally intertwined with societal well-being, offering a multitude of direct and indirect benefits that are essential for human survival, economic prosperity, and cultural richness.

Q3. Describe the reasons, why an established animal species becomes endangered due to human
interference. (e.g. Houbara bustard, Indus dolphin, and Marco polo sheep).

the endangerment of established animal species like the Houbara bustard, Indus dolphin, and Marco Polo sheep can be attributed to various forms of human interference:

1. Habitat Destruction and Fragmentation:

  • Loss of Natural Habitats: Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, and infrastructure development encroach upon the natural habitats of these species, reducing their living spaces.
  • Fragmentation: Habitat fragmentation due to roads, dams, and other structures isolates populations, leading to decreased, genetic diversity and limiting access to resources.

2. Overexploitation and Hunting:

  • Unsustainable Hunting: Direct hunting or poaching for trophies, traditional medicine, or cultural practices poses a significant threat to these species.
  • Illegal Trade: Illegal trafficking of these animals for their body parts or as exotic pets contributes to their decline.

3. Pollution and Contamination:

  • Water Pollution: For species like the Indus dolphin, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff, and contamination of water bodies pose severe threats to their survival.
  • Chemical Contamination: Pesticides, chemicals, and pollutants introduced into the environment affect the health and reproductive capabilities of these animals.

4. Climate Change and Altered Ecosystems:

  • Disrupted Ecosystems: Changes in climate patterns, including extreme weather events and altered temperature regimes, can disrupt the natural habitats and food sources of these species.
  • Loss of Suitable Range: Shifts in climate might force these species to move or adapt to new areas, often beyond their current range, which can be challenging for survival.

5. Human-Wildlife Conflict:

  • Conflict with Humans: Encounters with human settlements, agricultural activities, or infrastructure development lead to conflicts, resulting in retaliatory killings or accidental deaths of these animals.

6. Lack of Conservation Efforts:

  • Inadequate Protection: Insufficient conservation measures, weak enforcement of wildlife protection laws, and lack of awareness contribute to the vulnerability of these species.

The combination of these human-induced factors poses a severe threat to the survival of established animal species, pushing them towards endangerment and, in some cases, the brink of, extinction. Conservation efforts, stringent regulations, habitat preservation, and community involvement are crucial to mitigate these threats and protect these species from further decline.


Observe the distinguishing taxonomic characters from fresh and preserved specimens and
recognize plants and animals based on these characteristics.

Here’s how you can recognize and distinguish them based on these characters:


Fresh Specimens:

  1. Leaves: Observe the size, shape, arrangement, and venation patterns of leaves.
  2. Flowers: Note the color, size, arrangement of petals, stamens, pistils, and the fragrance.
  3. Stems: Look for characteristics like texture, color, branching patterns, and the presence of thorns or hairs.
  4. Roots: Examine the type of root system—taproot or fibrous—and note any specialized structures.

Preserved Specimens:

  1. Herbarium Specimens: Analyze pressed and dried plants. Note leaf morphology, flower structures, and any specific features that remain intact after preservation.
  2. Microscopic Examination: Use microscopes to study cellular structures, such as stomata on leaves or specialized cells in stems or roots.


Fresh Specimens:

  1. External Anatomy: Observe body structure, size, coloration, and distinctive features like appendages, fur, scales, or feathers.
  2. Internal Anatomy: Dissect specimens to study internal organs, skeletal structures, and physiological systems.

Preserved Specimens:

  1. Skeletons: Study skeletal structures and bones, noting differences in bone arrangements, sizes, and shapes among species.
  2. Preserved Organs: Examine preserved organs to understand internal structures and systems, identifying differences and similarities among species.

Recognition Based on Characters:

  • Taxonomic Keys: Use dichotomous keys—step-by-step guides based on distinguishing characteristics—to identify and classify specimens.
  • Comparative Analysis: Compare observed features with known taxonomic descriptions, drawings, or reference materials to determine species.


  • Accuracy and Precision: Attention to detail and careful observation are crucial for accurate identification.
  • Documentation: Record observations, measurements, and sketches for future reference and comparison.

By observing distinguishing taxonomic characters from fresh and preserved specimens, you can learn to recognize, classify, and understand the diversity of plants and animals, contributing to your understanding of taxonomy and systematics.


1. Analyze the impact of human beings on biodiversity:

Q: What are some significant ways in which human activities affect biodiversity? A: Human impact on biodiversity is substantial. Habitat destruction due to deforestation, urbanization, and land-use changes is a major factor. Pollution, overexploitation of resources, introduction of invasive species, and climate change are additional pressures leading to biodiversity loss. These activities disrupt ecosystems, leading to species extinction and altering natural habitats.

2. Associate advancements in scientific understanding with the classification of organisms to develop a more reliable system:

Q: How have scientific advancements influenced the classification of organisms? A: Advances in molecular biology and genetics have revolutionized taxonomy. DNA sequencing allows for more accurate identification and classification based on genetic similarities. This has led to a shift from solely morphological characteristics to incorporating genetic data, resulting in a more reliable and precise system of classifications, reflecting evolutionary relationships among organisms.

3. Apply the knowledge of classification to assess the characteristics of different organisms when visiting zoos, herbaria, and gardens:

A: Knowledge of classification helps in the relationships between different organisms. In zoos, it enables visitors to appreciate the diversity of species and their habitats. In herbaria and gardens, it allows for various plant species based on their taxonomic features, aiding in education and conservation efforts.

4. Explain the importance of binomial nomenclature in developing a more comprehendible sharing of scientific research:

Q: Why is binomial nomenclature essential for scientific research sharing?

A: Binomial nomenclature provides a standardized naming system, ensuring universal knowledge of species. This simplifies communication among scientists globally, preventing confusion caused by multiple common names. A unique scientific name for each species facilitates precise and accurate referencing in research, aiding in collaborations and information sharing across disciplines and languages.

Human impact on biodiversity

“Human impact on biodiversity, driven by habitat destruction, pollution, overexploitation, and climate change, poses a grave threat to various species globally. Scientific advancements, particularly in genetics, have refined the classification of organisms, integrating genetic data for more accurate taxonomy. Understanding classification aids in appreciating biodiversity in settings like zoos and gardens. Binomial nomenclature, offering standardized scientific names for species, fosters global clarity in research, facilitating seamless sharing of scientific insights across disciplines.”


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Habiba khan


comments user

Excellent work

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Dr. Waqas Arshad.

Really impressing Work !!!
Defining every terminology in simple, straight forward and to the point context .
Very Knowledge able covering all the aspects .
In short ” A Complete Package ”

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